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Acupressure Magnets and Auriculotherapy

Somatosensory-evoked potentials and cortical activities evoked by magnetic stimulation on acupoint in human.

Yu H, Xu G, Yang R, Yang S, Geng Y, Chen Y, Li W, Sun H. Province-Ministry Joint Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Field and Electrical Apparatus Reliability, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China.

Two acupuncture manipulations are clinically used: manual manipulation and electrical acupuncture. There is little published on the EEG changes during magnetic stimulation on an acupuncture site.

In this study, EEG data in response to magnetic stimulation on HeGu (LI 4) acupoint were measured to determine whether magnetic acupoint stimulation might modulate ongoing EEG or not.

Eighteen healthy volunteers (13 male, 5 female) 20 to 35 years old were chosen in this experiment, with consent obtained before the study.

The highest evoked potential was recorded in FCZ electrode, at about 140-170ms (P150) after acupoint stimulation, but not mock point stimulation. Comparison of the somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to acupoint stimulation and mock point stimulation showed that P150 was specific to acupoint stimulation.

With regard to the location of P150 in the human brain, we suggest that magnetic stimulation on HeGu acupoint would affect specific brain areas compared with the mock point. The difference in the anatomical structure of acupoint and non-acupoint may explain the specific acupoint-brain correlation, and P150 may be a characteristic activation in response to acupoint afferent.

Yu H, Xu G, Yang R, Yang S, Geng Y, Chen Y, Li W, Sun H (2009). "Somatosensory-evoked potentials and cortical activities evoked by magnetic stimulation on acupoint in human." Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 1:3445-8. PMID: 19964982

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Acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy for treatment of temple-jaw joint dysfunction

Wang XH, Zhang W. Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Anshun City People's Hospital, Anshun 561000, China.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy and simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction.

METHODS: Eighty-two cases were randomly divided into an observation group (n = 52) and a control group (n = 30). The observation group was treated with acupuncture at Xiaguan (ST 7), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. and AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument; the control group was treated with AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument.

RESULTS: The cured and markedly effective rate of 90.4% in the observation group was significantly better than 66.7% in the control group (P < 0.01), and the total effective rate of 98.1% in the observation group was significantly better than 86.7% in the control group (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy is significantly better than that of the simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction.

Wang XH, Zhang W (April 2009). "[Acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy for treatment of temple-jaw joint dysfunction]". Zhongguo Zhen Jiu [Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion]. 29(4):279-80. PMID: 19565734

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Magnets applied to acupuncture points as therapy - a literature review.

Colbert AP, Cleaver J, Brown KA, Harling N, Hwang Y, Schiffke HC, Brons J, Qin Y. Helfgott Research Institute, National College of Natural Medicine, Portland, OR, USA.

OBJECTIVES: To summarise the acu-magnet therapy literature and determine if the evidence justifies further investigation of acu-magnet therapy for specific clinical indications.

METHODS: Using various search strategies, a professional librarian searched six electronic databases (PubMed, AMED, ScienceDirect College Edition, China Academic Journals, Acubriefs, and the in-house Journal Article Index maintained by the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine Library). English and Chinese language human studies with all study designs and for all clinical indications were included. Excluded were experimental and animal studies, electro-acupuncture and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design, number, age and gender of subjects, magnetic devices used, acu-magnet dosing regimens (acu-point site of magnet application and frequency and duration of treatment), control devices and control groups, outcomes, and adverse events.

RESULTS: Three hundred and eight citations were retrieved and 50 studies met our inclusion criteria. We were able to obtain and translate (when necessary) 42 studies. The language of 31 studies was English and 11 studies were in Chinese. The 42 studies reported on 32 different clinical conditions in 6,453 patients from 1986 - 2007. A variety of magnetic devices, dosing regimens and control devices were used. Thirty seven of 42 studies (88%) reported therapeutic benefit. The only adverse events reported were exacerbation of hot flushes and skin irritation from adhesives.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on this literature review we believe further investigation of acu-magnet therapy is warranted particularly for the management of diabetes and insomnia. The overall poor quality of the controlled trials precludes any evidence based treatment recommendations at this time.

Acupuncture Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society. 2008 September; 26 (3):160-70.

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Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review.

Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, Park TY, Ernst E. Department of Medical Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea.

OBJECTIVE: Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a therapeutic method by which specific points on the auricle are stimulated to treat various conditions. AA is often recommended as treatment for insomnia. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate data from randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials testing the effectiveness of AA for treating insomnia.

METHODS: We searched the literature using 18 databases from their inception to April 2008 without language restrictions. All prospective randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of AA for subjects with insomnia were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score.

RESULTS: We identified 433 possible relevant articles, in which include 10 acceptable RCTs. The methodological quality of the trials was generally poor. Magnetic pellets AA was compared with placebo AA in three of the studies. The results suggested beneficial effects on sleep efficiency compared with placebo AA. One RCT tested needle AA compared with placebo AA and failed to show the effectiveness of AA. Four RCTs compared Semen Vaccariae or magnetic pellet AA with conventional drugs (estazolam or diazepam). Favourable effects for AA were found. Two RCTs tested thumbtack needle AA vs. no treatment suggested beneficial effects of AA on a sleep score.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that, because of the paucity and of the poor quality of the data, the evidence for the effectiveness of AA for the symptomatic treatment of insomnia is limited. Further, rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results.

Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, Park TY, Ernst E (November 2008). "Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review." International Journal of Clinical Practice. 62(11):1744-52. PMID: 18754807

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Auriculotherapy on low back pain in the elderly.

Suen LK, Wong TK, Chung JW, Yip VY. The Nethersole School of Nursing, Esther Lee Building, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of auriculotherapy using magnetic pellets for the elderly suffering from low back pain (LBP). Sixty participants who were 60-years old or above and had been suffering from LBP were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to receive auriculotherapy on a 3-week basis using either Semen Vaccariae (control group=30) or magnetic pellets (experimental group=30). Seven auricular acupoints that are believed to have an effect on LBP were selected. Treatment effects were evaluated using the Chinese Pain Intensity Verbal Rating scale (VRS). The experimental group had indeed experienced a significant improvement in pain relief when compared with the control group; and the therapeutic effects were sustained at 2 and 4-week follow-up periods after the therapy. Findings of this study demonstrated that auriculotherapy using magnetic pellets significantly reduce the pain intensity level of the elderly suffering from non-specific LBP.

Suen LK, Wong TK, Chung JW, Yip VY (February 2007). "Auriculotherapy on low back pain in the elderly." Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 13(1):63-9. PMID: 17210513

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Longitudinal changes in the disability level of the elders with low back pain after auriculotherapy.

Suen LK, Wong EM. The Nethersole School of Nursing, Esther Lee Building, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the longitudinal changes in the disability level of elders with LBP after receiving auriculotherapy.

DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

SETTINGS: Sixty participants who were 60 years old or above and who were suffering from LBP were recruited from five hostels for the elders in Hong Kong.

INTERVENTIONS: The participants were randomly allocated to receive a 3-week session of auriculotherapy using either semen vaccariae (control group=30) or magnetic pellets (experimental group=30). Seven auricular acupoints that are expected to have an effect on LBP were selected.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment data were collected at five points of time: (i) baseline, (ii) about 1.5 weeks of treatment, (iii) 3 weeks of treatment, (iv) 2 weeks post-treatment, and (v) 4 weeks post-treatment using the modified Aberdeen low back pain disability scale (Chinese).

RESULTS: When the rate of change was compared between the two groups at each point of time starting from the baseline, those in the experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in the overall disability level, pain/sensation, and physical and functional abilities at 1.5 weeks of treatment (p<0.001), 3 weeks of treatment (p<0.001), 2 weeks post-treatment (p<0.001), and 4 weeks post-treatment (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in the improvement of disability level were found among the elders with low back pain after receiving auriculotherapy using magnetic pellets.

Suen LK, Wong EM (February 2008). "Longitudinal changes in the disability level of the elders with low back pain after auriculotherapy." Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 16(1):28-35. PMID: 18346626

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[Clinical observation on auricular point magnetotherapy for treatment of senile low back pain]

Sun GP. Lornasuen College of Nursing, Hongkong Chinese University, China.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of auricular point magnetotherapy and auricular point sticking of Vaccaria seed on senile low back pain.

METHODS: Sixty cases, aged 60 or over 60 years with back pain, were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control group and a test group. The control group were treated with auricular sticking of Vaccaria seed with no pressing, and the test group with sticking magnetic bead of 66 gauss each piece with no pressing. Auricular points, Shenmen, Kidney, Bladder, Yaodizhui, Gluteus, Liver and Spleen were selected. Three weeks constituted one course. The effects before, during and after the course were assessed by questionnaire about back pain.

RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the test group the back pain was more effectively improved, including reducing pain and numbness in the back and the legs, decreasing the disorder of physical strength induced by this disease, and improving daily life quality of the patient. Follow-up survey for 2-4 weeks showed the effects still were kept.

CONCLUSION: Auricular magnetotherapy can effectively improve senile back pain.

Sun GP. (February 2007). "[Clinical observation on auricular point magnetotherapy for treatment of senile low back pain]". Zhongguo Zhen Jiu [Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion] 27(2):112-4. PMID: 17370493

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Effectiveness of auricular acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

Puangsricharern A, Mahasukhon S. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rajavithi Hospital, College of Medicine, Rangsit University, Bangkok, Thailand.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of auricular acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: Ninety-eight volunteer pregnant women with symptoms of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy before 14 weeks gestation were enrolled. The participants were randomized into two groups: treatment group and control group. Each patient in the treatment group received magnet pellets, placed at both auricles. They were taught to start acupressure from the third to the sixth day. Outcome measurement was Rhodes index score, which describe the severity and frequency of nausea and vomiting in the form of a questionnaire. The patients from both groups were asked to complete and return the forms including the amount of anti-emetic drug taken. Mean Rhodes index score and total number of anti-emetic drug taken from day 4-6 were used to compare the treatment effect. Student's t test, Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Ninety-one pregnant women who returned the questionnaires were evaluated. The Rhodes index scores of the treatment group were lower than that of the control group especially after day 4 to day 6 when the acupressure was started. However when comparing the mean score between the two groups, there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). The total amount of anti-emetic tablets in day 4-6 after acupressure intervention was compared and there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Auricular acupressure therapy in treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy may not relieve nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy and need further clinical research to confirm the effectiveness.

Puangsricharern A, Mahasukhon S (November 2008). "Effectiveness of auricular acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy." Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 91(11):1633-8. PMID: 19127781

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Magnetic acupressure for management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a preliminary study.

Klaiman P, Sternfeld M, Deeb Z, Roth Y, Golan A, Ezri T, Azamfirei L. Department of Anaesthesia, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, affiliated to Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy of magnetic acupressure in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).

METHODS: Fifty-eight patients were included in this randomized, double blind, preliminary prospective study. Thirty-three underwent ear, nose, and throat (ENT) procedures and twenty-five underwent gynaecological procedures. A magnet patch (M) or a placebo patch (P) was applied to patients in each group randomly. The patch was applied 15 min before surgery to P6 a point situated above the wrist, on the medial aspect of the arm between the palmaris longus and flexor carpi radicis (REF point). Anaesthesia was standardized for all patients. Primary study endpoints included PONV scores and number of rescue antiemetic administrations. Secondary endpoints included pain scores, percentage of patients who required rescue analgesics and satisfaction scores. Study variables were measured on arrival in the PACU and 8, 16 and 24 h after surgery.

RESULTS: The global incidence of PONV was 50%. We found no significant difference in the incidence of PONV between ENT patients (46%) and gynaecology patients (56%), and no difference between patients who received magnet treatment (47%) and those that did not (54%). Patients receiving the magnet had a similar satisfaction level (75% satisfied) to those receiving placebo (73% satisfied). In addition, magnet-treated patients had similar pain and PONV scores, and a similar percentage of patients in each groups received postoperative rescue analgesics. Finally, there was no difference in the number of rescue antiemetic administrations between the two groups.

CONCLUSION: The use of magnetic acupressure as a prophylactic antiemetic treatment prior to ENT or gynaecology surgeries produced no benefit when compared to placebo.

Klaiman P, Sternfeld M, Deeb Z, Roth Y, Golan A, Ezri T, Azamfirei L (November 2008). "Magnetic acupressure for management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a preliminary study." Minerva Anestesiologica. 74(11):635-42. PMID: 18971892

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[Study on effects of low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy on electrogastrogram and clinical therapeutic effect in the patient of functional dyspepsia]

Wang YG, Yao SK. Department of Digestion, The Affiliated Hospital of TCM, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, China.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic effects of low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy and prepulsid on functional dyspepsia (FD).

METHODS: Fifty cases of FD were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group were treated with low frequency pulse stimulation on Zhongwan (CV 12), Weishu (BL 21), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), with Fenglong (ST 40) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) selected according to syndrome differentiation, once a day, 30 min each session. The control group were treated with oral administration of prepulsid. Five days constituted one course. The scores of symptoms and parameters of electrogastrogram (EGG) before and after treatment and the therapeutic effect were investigated.

RESULTS: After treatment, the symptom scores significantly decreased (P < 0.01), with a significant difference in the decrease of symptom scores between the two groups (P < 0.05); and EGG parameters were improved (P < 0.05). The total effective rate of 93.3% in the treatment group was better than 75.0% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy can significantly improve the clinical symptoms and gastric activities in the patient of FD, with a better therapeutic effect than prepulsid.

Wang YG, Yao SK (April 2007). "[Study on effects of low frequency pulse plus auricular point magnetic therapy on electrogastrogram and clinical therapeutic effect in the patient of functional dyspepsia]" Zhongguo Zhen Jiu [Chinese Acpuncture and Moxibustion]. 27(4):245-8. PMID: 17585664

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[Orientation taping magnetic granules at auricular points and Neiguan (PC 6) for prevention and treatment of 102 cases of motion sickness]

Ding M, Zhao YP, Li M, Xue WH, Liu XH, Ma YP. Hebei Provincial TCM Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050011, China.

[Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of orientation taping magnetic granules at auricular points and Neiguan (PC 6) on motion sickness.

METHODS: All 200 cases of motion sickness were divided into a treatment group (n = 102) and a control group (n = 98). The treatment group were treated with orientation taping magnetic granules at auricular points and Neiguan (PC 6), and the control group with oral administration of theohydramine.

RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the two groups in the total effective rate (P < 0.05), and clinical symptoms disappeared more rapidly in the treatment group as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The therapeutic effect in the mild and moderate patients of the treatment group was better than that of the control group, and there was no significant difference in the therapeutic effect for the severe patients between the two groups. In the treatment group, the therapeutic effect of the mild patient was the best, the moderate patient was next and the severe patient was the worst, with a very significant difference (P < 0.005).

CONCLUSION: Orientation Taping magnetic granules at auricular points and Neiguan (PC 6) has an obvious therapeutic effect on motion sickness, with less adverse reactions.

Ding M, Zhao YP, Li M, Xue WH, Liu XH, Ma YP (May 2006). "Zhongguo Zhen Jiu [Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion]. 26(5):325-7. PMID: 16739843

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Acupuncture treatment of obesity with magnetic needles--a report of 100 cases.

Wang B, Lei F, Cheng G. The First Hospital of Xi'an Municipality, Shaanxi 710002, China.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of acupuncture for obesity.

METHOD: Points were selected according to the pattern identified, and punctured with the No.30 magnetic needles.

RESULT: A total effective rate of 97% was achieved after 15 sessions were completed.

CONCLUSION: The therapy can reduce the body weight by accelerating the peristalsis and inhibiting the hunger sensation.

Wang B, Lei F, Cheng G (March 2007). "Acupuncture treatment of obesity with magnetic needles--a report of 100 cases." Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 27(1):26-7. PMID: 17393620

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Magnets on ears helped diabetics.

Chen Y. Beijing Acupuncture, Chinese Herbology and Magnet Center, Baltimore, MD 21208, USA.

Magnets were attached on auricular acupuncture points of diabetes patients. This treatment lowered the blood glucose levels and improved eye conditions.

Chen Y (2002). "Magnets on ears helped diabetics." The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 30(1):183-5. PMID: 12067093

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The effect of magnitopuncture stimulation on HRV during simulated driving under vibration conditions

Li Z, Jiao K, Chen M, Wang C, Qi S. School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030.

[Article in Chinese]

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of magnitopuncture stimuli for reducing driver mental stress and fatigue using power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) and subjective evaluation.

The experiments were divided into A-group and B-group. In both groups the subjects performed the simulator for 90 minutes under a vibration conditions with an erect sitting posture in a silent environment, and magnitopuncture was put on the acupoints when performing the task for one hour in A-group.

In this study HRV exhibited a significant difference between the two groups after the simulating task (P < 0.05). A conclusion that magnitopuncture stimuli can reduce the driver mental stress and fatigue effectively was drawn.

Li Z, Jiao K, Chen M, Wang C, Qi S (March 2003). "[The effect of magnitopuncture stimulation on HRV during simulated driving under vibration conditions]." Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi [Journal of Biomedical Engineering]. 20(1):97-100. PMID: 12744174

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Effectiveness of auricular therapy on sleep promotion in the elderly.

Suen LK, Wong TK, Leung AW. School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HungHom.

Sleep disturbances are a particularly common problem in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of auricular therapy on sleep behaviors in the elderly.

One hundred and twenty participants of 60 years old or above and who were suffering from sleep disturbances were invited to participate in this study.

Eligible participants were randomly allocated to receive auricular therapy using Junci Medulla (Group A = 30), Semen Vaccariae (Group B = 30) or magnetic pearls (Group C = 60). Groups A and B were the control groups, while Group C was the experimental group. Seven auricular points which are thought to have an effect on promoting sleep were selected. The total treatment course lasted for three weeks. Objective measurement using actigraphic monitoring was performed before the therapy commenced, in the middle period of the therapy, and within one week after the therapy had been completed.

After the therapy, there were significant differences among the three groups in terms of the nocturnal sleep time (NST) (F(2,117) = 6.84, p < 0.05) and sleep efficiency (SE) (F(2,117) = 7.69, p < 0.05). Significant improvement in the sleep behaviors was observed in the experimental group using magnetic pearls. In a backward multiple regression, the effect of auricular therapy on SE after allowing for age in female participants is of high statistical significance (F(3,106) = 9.04, p < 0.001).

The paper concludes that auricular therapy using magnetic pearls is an effective means of improving the quantity and quality of sleep in the elderly.

Suen LK, Wong TK, Leung AW (2002). "Effectiveness of auricular therapy on sleep promotion in the elderly." American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 30(4):429-49. PMID: 12568272

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A pilot study of magnetic therapy for hot flashes after breast cancer.

Carpenter JS, Wells N, Lambert B, Watson P, Slayton T, Chak B, Hepworth JT, Worthington WB. School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn 37240, USA.

The purpose of this randomized placebo-controlled crossover pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of magnetic therapy for hot flashes among breast cancer survivors. Participants completed a 24-hour baseline hot-flash monitoring session, wore the magnetic devices or placebo for 3 days, completed an after-treatment hot-flash monitoring session, experienced a 10-day washout period, and then crossed over to the opposite study arm. Magnetic devices and placebos were placed on 6 acupressure sites corresponding to hot-flash relief. Complete data were available from 11 survivors of breast cancer.

Results indicated magnetic therapy was no more effective than placebo in decreasing hot-flash severity, and contrary to expectations, placebo was significantly more effective than magnets in decreasing hot-flash frequency, bother, interference with daily activities, and overall quality of life. Implications for clinical practice and future research include the need to explore alternative interventions aimed at alleviating hot flashes in this population.

Carpenter JS, Wells N, Lambert B, Watson P, Slayton T, Chak B, Hepworth JT, Worthington WB (April 2002). "A pilot study of magnetic therapy for hot flashes after breast cancer." Cancer Nursing. 25(2):104-9. PMID: 11984098

Therion commentary: Most research shows magnetic therapy does not help hot flashes, and in some cases can exacerbate them. This is likely due to the increase in localized blood microcirculation that occurs when magnets are applied, leading to increased sensations of warmth.

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The use of magnetic puncture in patients with duodenal peptic ulcer

Kravtsova TIu, Rybolovlev EV, Kochurov AP.

[Article in Russian]

Sixty-six patients with duodenal ulcer were found to have apparent shifts in psychovegetative correlations. The patients underwent puncture with alternating magnetic field of active biological points responsible for general adaptation (E 36, G 14, VB 20) and gastroduodenal function (E 20, T 9, T 8). The treatment improved emotional, personality and vegetative regulation. The symptoms declined and ulcer healed more rapidly.

Kravtsova TIu, Rybolovlev EV, Kochurov AP (Jan-Feb 1994). "[The use of magnetic puncture in patients with duodenal peptic ulcer.]" Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoĭ fizicheskoĭ kultury. (1):22-4. PMID: 8171845

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