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Magnetic Therapy Research: Effect on the Sinuses


Magnetic bones in human sinuses.

Baker RR, Mather JG, Kennaugh JH.

Studies on the interaction of magnetic fields and biological organisms have centred on the influence of applied magnetic fields on the physiology and behaviour of organisms, including humans, and a search for magnetic sources within the organisms themselves. Evidence continues to accumulate that a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can detect and orient to ambient magnetic fields (for examples see refs 2-4). Since the discovery that magnetic orientation by bacteria was due to the presence within the organism of magnetic particles of the ferric/ferrous oxide, magnetite, the search has begun for other biogenic deposits of inorganic magnetic material and ways in which the possession of such material might confer on the organism the ability to orient to ambient magnetic fields. Such magnetic material, often identified as magnetite, has been discovered in bees, homing pigeons, dolphins and various other organisms, including man. A variety of hypotheses for the use of magnetite in magnetic field detection have been proposed. We report here that bones from the region of the sphenoid/ethmoid sinus complex of humans are magnetic and contain deposits of ferric iron. The possible derivations and functions of these deposits are discussed.

Nature. 1983 Jan 6;301(5895):79-80.

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High-field magnetic resonance imaging of paranasal sinus inflammatory disease.

Moore J, Potchen M, Waldenmaier N, Sierra A, Potchen EJ.

Magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5 tesla magnet and a spin echo technique has revealed a remarkably intense signal from abnormal tissue in the human paranasal sinuses. Inflammatory disease in the maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses has been detected and demonstrated with greater clarity than any other available technique. The pathophysiologic basis for the intense signal has not been defined. These observations do, however, provide an opportunity to discover, clarify, and study paranasal sinus disease. Acute upper respiratory disease, allergic episodes, and the effect of drug treatment based on the MR signal and pathology can now be investigated with this technique. In addition, this may form a basis for assessing the epidemiology of paranasal sinus pathology.

Laryngoscope. 1986 Mar;96(3):267-71.

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Effect of field strength on susceptibility artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging.

Farahani K, Sinha U, Sinha S, Chiu LC, Lufkin RB.

Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine 90024.

In magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts occur at the interface of substances with large magnetic susceptibility differences, resulting in geometric distortions of the image at those boundaries. The susceptibility artifacts are often subtle on clinical images and if not carefully examined they may lead to misdiagnosis. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts are prevalent on the boundary of air-containing paranasal sinuses, as well as bone-soft tissue interfaces in the spinal canal. The appearance of these artifacts on images from three different magnetic field strength instruments, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.5 Tesla were studied. T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and gradient recalled echo pulse sequences were selected to image a water phantom containing substances of varying susceptibilities. The effects were also studied in MR images of the head in a normal human volunteer. At any given field strength the artifacts were more prominent in the gradient echo imaging than in the corresponding spin echo pulse sequence. As expected, the distortions were also greater at higher field strengths. The results in human subjects paralleled the findings in the phantom study.

Comput Med Imaging Graph. 1990 Nov-Dec;14(6):409-13.

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Measurements of magnetic field variations in the human brain using a 3D-FT multiple gradient echo technique.

Ericsson A, Weis J, Hemmingsson A, Wikstrom M, Sperber GO.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala University, Sweden.

A magnetic resonance 3DFT multiple gradient-echo technique was used for measurements of the proton spectrum for each voxel in the measured slice. Water, fat, magnetic field and T2 distributions in the head of a normal volunteer and a patient with intracerebral hematoma were computed. Magnetic field variations caused by the head were calculated after correction for the static magnetic field inhomogeneity. Large local magnetic field variations up to 3 ppm were found in the human brain near interfaces between air or bone and brain tissues and 0.5 ppm between hematoma and brain tissue. Information about magnetic field variations could be useful for shimming procedures in vivo and for correcting artifacts in imaging and spectroscopy.

Magn Reson Med. 1995 Feb;33(2):171-7.

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A computer simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the human head.

Li S, Williams GD, Frisk TA, Arnold BW, Smith MB.

Department of Radiology (Division of NMR Research), Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey 17033, USA.

Distortion of the static magnetic field inside the human head is dependent on regional tissue susceptibility variations and geometrical shape. These effects result in resonance line broadening and frequency shifts and consequently, intensity and spatial errors in both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. To calculate the field distortion due to the susceptibility's geometry, two dimensional (2D) finite element analysis was applied to simulate the field distribution in a 2D model of the human head, placed in a uniform magnetic field. The model contains air-filled cavities and sinuses, and the remainder is treated as water. The magnetic field deviation was evaluated using gray scale plots and histograms of the magnetic field. The shifts in parts/million and broadening of the histograms correspond to the NMR of the sampled region. The field distribution of the human head was also experimentally mapped using the DANTE tagging sequence. The calculated and experimental field maps are in good agreement. Thus, geometric considerations with uniform susceptibilities are sufficient to explain most of the static magnetic field distribution in the human head.

Magn Reson Med. 1995 Aug;34(2):268-75.

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Analysis and correction of geometric distortions in 1.5 T magnetic resonance images for use in radiotherapy treatment planning.

Moerland MA, Beersma R, Bhagwandien R, Wijrdeman HK, Bakker CJ.

Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The aim of this study is to investigate and correct for machine- and object-related distortions in magnetic resonance images for use in radiotherapy treatment planning. Patients with brain tumours underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiotherapy position with the head fixed by a plastic cast in a Perspex localization frame. The imaging experiments were performed on a 1.5 T whole body MRI scanner with 3 mT m-1 maximum gradient capability. Image distortions, caused by static magnetic field inhomogeneity, were studied by varying the direction of the read-out gradient. For purposes of accuracy assessment, external and internal landmarks were indicated. Tubes attached to the cast and in the localization frame served as external landmarks. In the midsagittal plane the brain-sinus sphenoidalis interface, the pituitary gland-sinus sphenoidalis interface, the sphenoid bone and the corpora of the cervical vertebra served as internal landmarks. Landmark displacements as observed in the reversed read-out gradient experiments were analysed with respect to the contributions of machine-related static magnetic field inhomogeneity and susceptibility and chemical shift artifacts. The machine-related static magnetic field inhomogeneity in the midsagittal plane was determined from measurements on a grid phantom. Distortions due to chemical shift effects were estimated for bone marrow containing structures such as the sphenoid bone and the corpora of the cervical vertebra using the values obtained from the literature. Susceptibility-induced magnetic field perturbations are caused by the patient and the localization frame. Magnetic field perturbations were calculated for a typical patient dataset.

Phys Med Biol. 1995 Oct;40(10):1651-4.

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Three-dimensional numerical simulations of susceptibility-induced magnetic field inhomogeneities in the human head.

Truong TK, Clymer BD, Chakeres DW, Schmalbrock P.

Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the static magnetic field in the human head were carried out to assess the field inhomogeneity due to magnetic susceptibility differences at tissue interfaces. We used a finite difference method and magnetic permeability distributions obtained by segmentation of computed tomography images. Computations were carried out for four models, consisting of the head and the neck; the head, neck, and shoulders; the head, neck, and thorax; and the head tilted backwards, including the neck and the shoulders. Considerable magnetic field inhomogeneities were observed in the inferior frontal lobes and inferior temporal lobes, particularly near the sphenoid sinus and the temporal bones. Air/tissue interfaces at the shoulders were found to induce substantial magnetic field inhomogeneities in the occipital lobes and the cerebellum, whereas air/tissue interfaces in the lungs appeared to have less influence on the magnetic field in the brain. Tilting the head backwards could significantly reduce the field inhomogeneities superior to the planum sphenoidale as well as in the occipital lobes and the cerebellum.

Magn Reson Imaging. 2002 Dec;20(10):759-70.

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